Pineal Gland



Diverticulum of ependyma in the roof of 3rd ventricle between habenular and post commissures


  • Habenular
  • Infundibular
  • Suprapineal
  • Optic
Blood supply
•Part of Circumventricular organs
•Posterior choroidal artery

•Drainage: internal cerebral veins; basal veiinns of Rosenthl; vein Galen s andinus recti



•Antigonadotrophic: delayed pubescence and precocious puberty
•Neuroendocrine transducer
•Control endocrine activity- thyrotropin RH; LHRH, somatostatin
•Endocrnie gland: melatonin, serotonin, norepinephrine by sympathetic neurones

• Biological clock mechanisms: circadian rhythms

Applied anatomy  

Tumors can compress the pineal gland and lead to various presentations such as:

•Aqueductal compression obstructive hydrocephalus: H,N V

•Superior colliculus- infiltration/ compression: vertical gaze palsy (Parinaud`s syndrome), pupillary or oculomotor nerve paresis

•Posterior commisure: consensual light reflex

•periaqueductal gray region: mydriasis, convergence spasm, pupillary inequality, and convergence or retractory nystagmus
•Ventral midbrain: impairment of downgaze

superior cerebellar peduncle- ataxia and dysmetria

Endocrine malfunctions
–Pseudoprecautious puberty caused by beta human chorionic gonadotropin- bhCG
–Secondary amenorrhea in over 12year old girls