Cranial Foramina





Supraorbital (1)

Superior orbital margin

Supraorbital artery, vein and nerve

Infraorbital (2)

Inferior orbital margin

Infraorbital artery, vein and nerve

Zygomaticofacial (3)

Zygomatic bone


Zygomaticofacial artery, vein and nerve

Mental (5)

Mandibular body

Mental artery, vein and nerve


Magnum (6)

Between the squamous and basilar part of occipital bone.

spinal cord, meninges, spinal arteries, spinal accessory nerve, vertebral arteries, emissary veins, cervical meningeal nerve.

Jugular foramen (7)

Anterolateral to Hypoglossal canal, at the level of the styloid process


Glossopharyngeal nerve, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve, emissary veins and the spinal accessory nerve

Carotid canal (8)

Anterior to the jugular foramen

Internal carotid artery and nerve plexus and emissary vein

Lacerum (9)

Between the basilar part of occipital bone, the body of sphenoid and the petrouspart of temporal bone

Covered by cartilage in life.

Related to the internal carotid artery superiorly


Hypoglossal canal

Anterolateral to occipital condyles


Hypoglossal nerve, emissary vein

Foramen spinosum

In sphenoid spine


Nervous spinosum, middle meningeal artery

Foramen ovale

Anteromedial to foramen spinosum


Mandibular nerve, accessory meningeal artery, lesser petrosal nerve, emissary vein



Stylomastoid artery, facial nerve, emissary vein
Foramen rotundum



Maxillary nerve

Superior orbital fissure

Between the lesser and greater wing of sphenoid

Ophthalmic, oculomotor, trochlear and abducens nerve ophthalmic veins

Inferior orbital fissure

Orbital part of maxillae


Continuation of maxillary nerve

Optic canal

Lesser wing of sphenoid

Optic nerve, meninges, ophthalmic artery


Mandibular body (internal surface)


Lingual nerves and vessels