Applied anatomy  

Rupture of the abdominal aorta can occur in abdominal trauma. This presents with massive hemo peritoneum usually severe enough to cause death.

Infra renal segment of the aorta is the commonest site of aortic aneurysms. These can present with:

  • Pulsatile abdominal mass

  • Abdominal pain radiating to the groin

  • Tender abdominal mass

  • Parietal GIT obstruction

  • Limb ischaemia

  • GIT bleeding.

Portal hypertension -portal venous pressure above 20 cm H2O

A) May be caused by:

  • Suprahepatic causes e.g. heart failure

  • Intrahepatic causes e.g. cirrhosis

  • Infrahepatic causes e.g. portal vein thrombosis or tumor
    compression of the portal vein

B) Commonly results in:

  • Esophageal varices

  • Caput medussae around umbilicus

  • Rectal piles of haemorrhoids around anal canal

  • Esophageal varices in the lower esophagus




Posterior abdominal wall and diaphragm