Femoral Vein


From the adductor hiatus as a continuation of the popliteal vein, to the inguinal ligament where it continues as external iliac vein.


  • Initially posterolateral to the femoral artery then behind and eventually medial to the femoral artery.

  • Runs on adductor magnus, longus, then pectineus.

  • Covered by sartorius, medial to vastus medialis.


  • Profunda femoris vein.
  • Lateral and medial circumflex veins.
  • Great saphenous vein.
  • Deep external pudendal vein Deep circumflex iliac vein.
  • Occasionally the subcutaneous vein which usually drain into great saphenous vein

What is the direction of blood flow to the femoral vein?
How does sitting for long predispose one to pulmonary embolism
(Check deep venous thrombosis).

Femoral Artery:




Continuation of the external iliac artery below inguinal ligament


From inguinal ligament to adductor hiatus


  • Runs between iliopsoas tendon and pectineus on adductor longus then magnus before exiting adductor canal to become popliteal.
  • Covered by femoral sheath, fascia lata, superficial inguinal nodes, superficial fascia and skin.
  • Femoral branch of genitofemoral nerve runs more lateral than anterior to it.
  • Crossed by the medial cutaneous nerve of the thigh.
  • Between femoral vein and femoral nerve.
  • Separated from the hip joint capsule by tendon of psoas major.
  • In adductor canal it is covered by skin, fascia, sartorius and fibrous sheath of the canal. Femoral vein is first medial then posterior and finally lateral to it.


Surface landmarks of the femoral artery

•  Femoral point between anterior superior iliac spine and pubic symphysis.
•  Corresponds to upper two thirds of a line joining femoral point to adductor tubercle when thigh is semi flexed, abducted and laterally rotated.




  • Superficial epigastric
  • Superficial circumflex iliac
  • Superficial external pudendal


  • Profunda femoris
  • Deep external pudendal
  • Muscular branches
  • Frequently lateral and medial circumflex femoral arteries
  • Descending genicular

What is the most advantageous point to compress the femoral artery to reduce bleeding from a distal cut?
(Hint femoral point)



Thus, through its branches, the external and internal iliac arteries communicate.

Name the arteries that join at each of the anastomoses above.


organization of thigh