Female external genitalia

These comprise:

  • Mons pubis

  • Labia majora

  • Labia minora

  • Vestibule of the vagina

  • Clitoris

  • Bulb of the vestibule

  • Greater vestibular glands

Mons pubis
Labia Majora
Labia minora
  • Rounded median elevation infront of pubic symphysis.

  • Accumulation of fat

  • Coarse hair covers the skin over it after puberty.
  • Two elongated folds which run  downward and backward from the mons pubis

  • Eclose between  them the median pudendal cleft

  • Outer aspects covered by skin with many sebaceous glands

  • Coarse hair covers the skin after puberty.

  • The inner aspects are smooth and hairless

  • Subcutaneous tissue consists mostly of fat.

  • It is continous behind with the subcutaneous tissue of the urogenital region and in front with that of the mons pubis.

  • They contain:

    a) Terminations of the round ligaments,
    b) Some bundles of smooth muscle fibres
    c) Nerves
    d) Blood and lymphatic vessels.
    e) Homologous with the scrotum of the male.
  • Two small folds of skin between the labia majora at either side of the opening of the vagina.

  • Join the medial aspects of the labia majora

  • In the virgin they are connected with each other by a transverse fold called the frenulum of the labia or fourchette.

  • They are devoid of fat

  • Skin covering them is smooth, moist and pink.

  • Are hidden by labia majora except in children and in women in menopause.

External urethral orifice
Vaginal orifice

  • Cleft between the labia minora
  • Contain openings of :
  1. Vagina
  2. Urethra
  3. Ducts  of greater vestibular glands
  • Situated behind the clitoris immediately infront of the vaginal orifice.
  • Usually a median cleft, the margins slightly averted.
  • Larger than the urethral orifice.

  • Size and appearance depend on the size of the hymen.

  • The two ducts of the greater vestibular glands open on each side of the vaginal orifice between it and the labia minora.

  • Smaller openings for the lesser vestibular glands are in the vestibule between the urethral and vaginal openings.

Corpora cavernosa
Glans clitoris
  • Most of it is hidden by labia minora
  • Arises from the body of  pelvis by two crura.
  • Near the lower margin of the pubic symphysis the crura turn downwards.
  • The corpora  carvenosa which together form the body of clitoris.
  • Are enclosed by the densely fibrous envelope and are separated from each other by an incomplete septum.
  • Glans of the clitoris is the small rounded elevation on the free end of the body.
  • Also consists of erectile tissue and is highly sensitive.
  • Suspensory ligament of the clitoris connects it to the front of the pubic symphysis.

Bulb of vestibule
Greater vestibular glands
  • Paired elongated masses of erectile tissue which lie at the sides of the vaginal openings under cover of bulbospongiosus muscle.
  • Broad behind but very narrow infront
  • Unite with each other anteriorly to form a thin strand which passes along the lower surface of the body of the clitoris to the glans
  • Consists mainly of  erectile tissue

  • Capable of enlargement as a result of engorgement with blood

  • Not traversed by urethra

  • Located behind the anterior commissure of the labia majora
  • Two small rounded / ovoid bodies located immediately behind the bulb of the vestibule.
  • Duct of each gland opens into the groove between the labium minus and attached margins of the hymen.
  • Greater vestibular glands are homologous with the bulbo-urethral glands of the male.
  • Compressed during coitus and secrete mucus, which lubricates the lower end of the vagina.