Organization of the perineum

Applied anatomy


  • Hydrocele – This is the presence of excess fluid in the processus vaginalis after birth. Infants may accumulate fluid in the cavity of the tunica vaginalis testis. This is called non-communicating hydrocele. This fluid usually absorbs during the first year.

  • If the processus vaginalis remains patent, peritoneal fluid fluid may be forced into it, forming a communicating hydrocele. This is often associated with indirect inguinal hernia.

  • The proximal and distal ends of the stalk of the processus vaginalis may obliterate, leaving an intermediate cystic area called a hydrocele of the cord.

  • There are several other conditions that can cause hydrocele e.g. trauma, filarial worm infections .e.t.c.

Testis, spermatic cord and testis


  • Varicosity of the Pampiniform plexus.

  • More common on the left side, and often results from defective valves in the testicular vein. They may temporarily disappear when the person lies down and the scrotum is elevated.
  • Rarely, a Varicocele may result from blockage of the renal vein owing to a tumor in the left kidney.

Hematocele of testis

  • Collection of blood in the cavity of the tunica vaginalis, often due to trauma.

The difference in lymphatic drainage of the testis and scrotum is important; Cells from a testicular tumor may spread through lymphatics to the lumbar lymph nodes; those from the scrotum to the superficial inguinal nodes.

Vasectomy is a contraceptive procedure in which the vas deferens is ligated and cut, so that sperms can no longer pass into the urethra.