Applied Anatomy:

Congenital disorders:

Include flat foot, clubfoot, for which see embryology textbooks.


Fracture of talus:

Although the talus has no muscles attached onto it, it has a rich blood supply from branches of:

  • Dorsalis pedis
  • Posterior tibial artery
  • Peroneal arteries

These arteries run from anterior to posterior. In fractures of the talar neck, these vessels are disrupted and avascular necrosis of the body of the talus may occur.


Match fractures:

Also called stress or fatigue fractures usually affect the 2nd or 3rd metatarsal shafts. Follows walking long distances or marching as among soldiers.
Note :The fracture is thin, may be overlooked but may heal with excessive bone formation.


Hammer toe:

Flexion deformity of an interphalangeal joint.

May be due to weak lumbricals, or other imbalance of the delicate arrangement of flexor and extensor tendons.

The affected joint is sharply angled into flexion.

Secondary contracture of the planter aspect of the joint capsule fixes the deformity, and a callosity usually, forms over the dorsum of the flexed joint, from pressure.


Pain in the foot (metatarsalgia):

May be caused by:

  • Anterior flat foot
  • March fracture
  • Neuroma (abnormal fibrous thickening) of a digital nerve.

Planter fascitis:

Pain beneath the heel on standing or walking. Caused by inflammation of soft tissues at the site of attachment of the planter aponeurosis onto the calcaneal tuberosity.

Calcaneal spur

A bony projection from the calcaneal tubercle.

The Foot