Pelvic viscera


The rectum



  • True pelvis
  • Extends From S3 to beyond tip of coccyx


  • Follows the curves of the sacrum and coccyx
  • S shaped in coronal section

Peritoneal relations


  • Superior 1/3rd covered anteriorly and laterally
  • Middle 1/3rd is covered only anteriorly
  • Inferior 1/3rd is not covered
  • In male- rectovesical pouch
  • In female- recto uterine pouch of Douglas
  • The pouches permit rectal distention






  • Base of urinary bladder
  • Terminal parts of ureter
  • Ductus deferens
  • Seminal vesicals
  • Prostrate gland
  • Cervix
  • Vagina
  • Rectovaginal pouch
  • Recto uterine pouch


  • Distal sacrum
  • Coccyx
  • Anococcygeal ligament
  • Branches of superior rectal artery
  • Termination of sympathetic chain



  • Sacral plexus
  • Branches of internal iliac artery
  • Piriformis muscle
  • Ischiorectal fossa


Blood supply


  • Superior rectal artery a branch of inferior mesenteric artery
  • Middle rectal arteries branches of internal iliac
  • Inferior rectal arteries- branches of internal pudendal artery
  • The veins correspond
  • An important site for porto-systemic anastomosis
  • The rectal venous plexus is joined to the vesical venous plexus and the utero vaginal plexus.

Lymphatic drainage


  • Para rectal lymph nodes- inferior mesenteric nodes from the superior part
  • Inferior part- internal iliac, common iliac and aortic lymph nodes



  • Autonomic from inferior hypogastric plexus

Summary of Pelvic Viscera
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