Movements about the joint:

Axis of these movements passes through tip of lateral maleolus and just below the tip of the medial malleolus.


Plantar flexion:

  • Gastrocnemius,
  • Soleus,
  • Flexor digitorum longus
  • Flexor hallucis longus,
  • Tibialis posterior


  • Tibialis anterior,
  • Extensor hallucis longus
  • Extensor digitorum longus
  • Peroneus tertius.



  • The articular surface of the talus is wider anteriorly. So during dorsiflexion, the malleoli hold the talus very tightly – maximum stability.
  • In full plantarflexion, the ligaments of the distal tibiofibular joint are less tout and small amounts of rotation, abduction and adduction are possible.


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CHAPTER 11: The Ankle Joint